合成孔径雷达参数化成像技术进展

曾涛 温育涵 王岩 丁泽刚 卫扬铠 袁跳跳

曾涛, 温育涵, 王岩, 等. 合成孔径雷达参数化成像技术进展[J]. 雷达学报, 2021, 10(3): 327–341. doi: 10.12000/JR21004
引用本文: 曾涛, 温育涵, 王岩, 等. 合成孔径雷达参数化成像技术进展[J]. 雷达学报, 2021, 10(3): 327–341. doi: 10.12000/JR21004
ZENG Tao, WEN Yuhan, WANG Yan, et al. Research progress on synthetic aperture radar parametric imaging methods[J]. Journal of Radars, 2021, 10(3): 327–341. doi: 10.12000/JR21004
Citation: ZENG Tao, WEN Yuhan, WANG Yan, et al. Research progress on synthetic aperture radar parametric imaging methods[J]. Journal of Radars, 2021, 10(3): 327–341. doi: 10.12000/JR21004

合成孔径雷达参数化成像技术进展

doi: 10.12000/JR21004
基金项目: 国家杰出青年基金(61625103),北京市自然科学基金(4202067),国家自然科学基金(11833001, 61931002)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    曾涛:曾 涛(1971–),男,北京理工大学研究员、博士生导师,主要研究方向为雷达信息、信号处理与系统设计

    温育涵(1995–),男,北京理工大学硕士研究生,主要研究方向为合成孔径雷达信号处理与成像

    王岩:王 岩(1989–),男,北京理工大学副研究员、博士生导师,主要研究方向为新体制合成孔径雷达成像处理、干涉和极化应用技术等

    丁泽刚(1980–),男,北京理工大学研究员、博士生导师,主要研究方向为新体制合成孔径雷达成像机理、成像处理和图像信息提取

    卫扬铠(1995–),男,北京理工大学博士研究生,主要研究方向为合成孔径雷达信号处理

    袁跳跳(1996–),男,北京理工大学硕士研究生,主要研究方向为合成孔径雷达信号处理

    通讯作者:

    王岩 yan_wang@bit.edu.cn

  • 责任主编:文贡坚 Corresponding Editor: WEN Gongjian
  • 中图分类号: TN95

Research Progress on Synthetic Aperture Radar Parametric Imaging Methods

Funds: The National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (61625103), The Beijing Natural Science Foundation (4202067), The National Natural Science Foundation of China (11833001, 61931002)
More Information
  • 摘要: 传统合成孔径雷达(SAR)成像可视为点目标散射模型约束下数据空间到图像空间的映射。然而,真实目标多为延展目标,与传统线性成像处理中的点目标散射模型存在失配,会导致SAR图像表征失真。常见的现象是使延展目标多呈现为孤立强点,阻碍了基于SAR图像的目标辨识等应用。SAR参数化成像技术是为解决上述模型失配问题而诞生的一种非线性成像方法,特点是兼顾点目标和延展目标的散射模型。具体来说,是通过利用不同类别目标的回波或图像的相位与幅度特征对观测角度的敏感性,辨识目标类型,反演目标散射参数,进而根据目标散射的参数化模型,重建目标图像的技术。在对延展目标成像时,可获得比传统线性成像方法更好的图像质量。该文主要介绍了线型延展目标的参数化成像技术,对应真实场景中的孤立强点和连续边缘,深入讨论了基于回波域、图像域的参数化成像技术和试验结果,展望了未来SAR参数化成像技术的发展趋势。

     

  • 图  1  美国空军实验室铲车数据成像结果

    Figure  1.  The imaging result of the backhoe from the AFRL

    图  2  参数化成像流程图

    Figure  2.  The block diagram of parametric imaging

    图  3  直线型结构不同角度成像结果

    Figure  3.  Images of a linear structure with different observation angles

    图  4  直线型目标与回波信号示意图

    Figure  4.  The linear structure and its echo

    图  5  曲线型结构不同角度成像结果

    Figure  5.  Images of a arc structure with different observation angles

    图  6  曲线型目标与回波信号示意图

    Figure  6.  The arc structure and its echo

    图  7  辛格函数与余弦函数的包络示意图

    Figure  7.  The envelope of sinc function and cosine function

    图  8  基于回波域特征的参数化成像方法框图

    Figure  8.  The block diagram of parametric imaging method based on echo domain features

    图  9  微波暗室实验场景图

    Figure  9.  The observation geometry in the microwave anechoic chamber

    图  10  实验结果

    Figure  10.  Experimental results

    图  11  美国空军实验室铲车数据实验结果

    Figure  11.  The imaging result of the backhoe from the AFRL

    图  12  点目标SAR图像与不同观测角度下相位的变化结果

    Figure  12.  The SAR image of a point target and the phase feature

    图  13  端点目标SAR图像与不同观测角度下相位的变化结果

    Figure  13.  The SAR image of an endpoint and the phase feature

    图  14  微波暗室场景示意图

    Figure  14.  The observation geometry in microwave anechoic chamber

    图  15  金属圆柱和金属球光学图片

    Figure  15.  The optical images of the metal cylinder and spheres

    图  16  微波暗室成像结果

    Figure  16.  The results of the microwave anechoic chamber experiment

    图  17  基于MIMO雷达的球门实验结果

    Figure  17.  Experiment results based on MIMO radar

    图  18  雷达不同观测角度下不同类型点目标的幅度变化图

    Figure  18.  The amplitude of different types of point targets under different observation angles of radar

    图  19  基于宽角度幅度特征的目标辨识方法框图

    Figure  19.  Block diagram of target identification method based on wide-angle amplitude feature

    图  20  基于美国空军实验室铲车数据重建结果

    Figure  20.  The experimental results of the backhoe from the AFRL

    表  1  不同成像方法效果对比分析

    Table  1.   Analysis of the effects of different imaging methods

    类型成像方法优点缺点
    线性方法圆迹SAR BP成像1.成像分辨率高
    2.目标展现度高
    1.算法计算量大
    2.实时性差
    3.对雷达航迹需求高
    4.数据量大
    非线性方法压缩感知SAR成像1.成像分辨率高
    2.成像质量高
    3.数据量小
    1.低信噪比下易出现虚假目标
    2.算法计算量大
    3.目标特征直观可视效果低
    多角度SAR图像融合目标展现度高1.数据量大
    2.图像需要配准
    回波域参数化成像1.目标展现度高
    2.数据量小
    3.成像质量高
    1.需要至少两个观测角度数据
    2.处理多目标困难
    图像域参数化成像1.目标展现度高
    2.数据量小
    3.成像质量高
    1.需要至少两个观测角度数据
    2.图像需要配准
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-01-11
  • 修回日期:  2021-03-21
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-04-12
  • 刊出日期:  2021-06-28

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